Using Sources

The work of higher education is the work of connecting ideas. We do that by listening to, summarizing, analyzing, citing, and responding to other scholars and researchers. For more about using sources effectively and citing them correctly and with integrity, read below.

For further support, check out our workshop series on Writing with Research, or schedule an appointment with one of our writing consultants.


Academic Research Choosing a Topic
Developing a Research Question
Types of Evidence
Why Use Sources?
Researching Your Topic
How to Conduct Online Research
Evaluating Sources
Writing a Literature Review

Quoting, Paraphrasing,
and Summarizing Sources
Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing
Using Quotations
Paraphrase and Summary
Should I paraphrase or quote?
Verbs for Referring to Sources
Examples of Direct Quoting
Examples of Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting

Academic Integrity ⁄
Understanding Plagiarism
Why Cite?
When to Cite
Successful vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases
How to Paraphrase Without Plagiarizing
Plagiarism Exercise

MLA Formatting Style MLA Format and Style
In-Text Citation
Works Cited Page (basic format)
Works Cited Page (books)
Works Cited Page (periodicals)
Works Cited Page (electronic sources)
Works Cited Page (other)
Sample MLA Paper

APA Formatting Style APA Format and Style
In-Text Citation (the basics)
In-Text Citation (author ⁄ authors)
Reference List (the basics)
Reference List (author ⁄ authors)
Reference List (articles in periodicals)
Reference List (books)
Reference List (other print sources)
Reference List (electronic sources)
Reference List (other non-print sources)
Sample APA Paper

Other Formatting Styles Chicago Manual of Style
Turabian Style
American Political Science Association (APSA) Style
Council of Science Editors (CSE)
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