Using Sources


The work of higher education is the work of connecting ideas. We do that by listening to, summarizing, analyzing, citing, and responding to other scholars and researchers. For more about using sources effectively and citing them correctly and with integrity, read below.For further support, check out our workshop series on Writing with Research, or schedule an appointment with one of our writing consultants.

Academic Research Identifying a Research Question with Significance
Developing a Research Question
What Counts as Evidence?
Why Use Sources?
How to Conduct Online Research
Literature Reviews for Research Papers
Writing a Literature Review
Video: Overview of Literature Reviews

Summarizing, Paraphrasing,
and Quoting Sources
When to Use Summary, Paraphrase, or Quotation
Using Quotations
Paraphrase and Summary
Should I paraphrase or quote?
Verbs for Referring to Sources
Examples of Direct Quoting
Examples of Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting
Language to Introduce Citations

Academic Integrity ⁄
Understanding Plagiarism
When to Cite
Plagiarism Exercise
Plagiarism and ESL Writers: An Overview

MLA Formatting Style MLA Style Guide
MLA Format and Style
In-Text Citation
Works Cited Page (basic format)
Works Cited Page (books)
Works Cited Page (periodicals)
Works Cited Page (electronic sources)
Works Cited Page (other)
Sample MLA Paper

APA Formatting Style APA Style Guide
APA Format and Style
In-Text Citation (the basics)
In-Text Citation (author ⁄ authors)
Reference List (the basics)
Reference List (author ⁄ authors)
Reference List (articles in periodicals)
Reference List (books)
Reference List (other print sources)
Reference List (electronic sources)
Reference List (other non-print sources)
Sample APA Paper

Other Formatting Styles Chicago Style Guide
Chicago Manual of Style
Turabian Style
American Political Science Association (APSA) Style
Council of Science Editors (CSE)